slope_vector() calculates the slopes associated with consecutive elements
in one dimensional distance and associated elevations (see examples).
slope_distance() calculates the slopes associated with consecutive
distances and elevations.
slope_distance_mean() calculates the mean average slopes associated with
consecutive distances and elevations.
slope_distance_weighted() calculates the slopes associated with
consecutive distances and elevations,
with the mean value associated with each set of distance/elevation
vectors weighted in proportion to the distance between each elevation
measurement, so longer sections have proportionally more influence
on the resulting gradient estimate (see examples).
slope_vector(x, elevations) slope_distance(d, elevations) slope_distance_mean(d, elevations, directed = FALSE) slope_distance_weighted(d, elevations, directed = FALSE)
Vector of locations
Elevations in same units as x (assumed to be metres)
Vector of distances between points
Should the value be directed?
A vector of slope gradients associated with each linear element
(each line between consecutive vertices) associated with linear features.
Returned values for
slope_distance_mean_weighted() are summary statistics for all
linear elements in the linestring.
The output value is a proportion representing the change in elevation
for a given change in horizontal movement along the linestring.
0.02, for example, represents a low gradient of 2% while 0.08 represents
a steep gradient of 8%.
x = c(0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9) elevations = c(1, 2, 2, 4, 3, 0) / 10 # downward slope overall slope_vector(x, elevations)#>  0.050 0.000 0.200 -0.100 -0.075library(sf) m = st_coordinates(lisbon_road_segment) d = sequential_dist(m, lonlat = FALSE) elevations = elevation_extract(m, dem_lisbon_raster) slope_distance(d, elevations)#>  -0.047226259 -0.040883072 -0.025032918 -0.061124557 -0.017447060 #>  -0.062426272 -0.123580541 0.033705378 0.004292243 -0.040360003 #>  -0.151671893 -0.182367906 0.409246854 -0.034463974 -0.098406640 #>  -0.161798173 0.076261379 0.100654228slope_distance_mean(d, elevations)#>  0.09283052slope_distance_mean(d, elevations, directed = TRUE)#>  -0.09283052#>  0.09283052slope_distance_weighted(d, elevations)#>  0.09501323slope_distance_weighted(d, elevations, directed = TRUE)#>  -0.09501323